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Pay restoration for junior doctors in England

Over the last few years, junior doctors have made both an enormous contribution and a significant sacrifice. And yet none of this is recognised by the government. We are calling for NHS pay restoration.

Re-ballot of junior doctors in England results

The re-ballot of junior doctors to extend our mandate for industrial action, and provide us with a mandate for action short of strike (ASOS), closed on 20 March 2024.

The results of the re-ballot are:


  • Number entitled to vote: 55,937
  • Number of votes cast in the ballot: 34,601
  • Turnout: 61.86%


Question: Are you prepared to take part in strike action?

  • Number of YES votes: 33,869 (97.97%)
  • Number of NO votes: 702 (2.03%)
  • Number of spoiled or otherwise invalid voting papers: 30

Question: Are you prepared to take part in action short of a strike?

  • Number of YES votes: 33,411 (97.08%)
  • Number of NO votes: 1,004 (2.92%)
  • Number of spoiled or otherwise invalid voting papers: 186

Why junior doctors are taking industrial action

While workload and waiting lists are at record highs, junior doctors’ pay has been cut by more than a quarter since 2008.

A crippling cost-of-living crisis, burnout and well below inflation pay rises risk driving hard working doctors out of their profession at a time when we need them more than ever. If junior doctors are forced out of the NHS because of poor pay and conditions, the services we all rely on to look after our loved ones will suffer.

Junior doctors explain why they are taking industrial action

During the February 2024 strikes, junior doctors explain why they are taking industrial action.

Real life stories

Enough is enough

The Doctor has spoken to a range of junior doctors about why they are considering industrial action.

In a series of interviews, Ben Ireland and Tim Tonkin speak to:


How we got here

Pay Article Illustration
Junior doctors' pay eroded

Our calculations show that pay awards for junior doctors in England have delivered a real terms (RPI) pay cut.

Junior doctors in England are guaranteed a 2% pay rise in 2022/23, as part of the multi-year pay deal agreed in 2019. This contract also brought an additional £90 million investment and many significant improvements on the 2016 contract.

From our perspective, the deal provided a guarantee of annual uplifts that were higher than those seen since 2008, in the context of an uncertain time due to the potential impacts of an impending Brexit. 82% of junior doctor members who voted in the referendum on the new contract, agreed to accept them.

However, the contract was agreed before the pandemic started and when inflation was below 2%. Our new calculations show that pay awards for junior doctors in England from 2008/09 to 2021/22 have delivered a real terms (RPI) pay cut of 26.1%, even accounting for total investment secured through the multi-year pay deal agreed in 2019.

Junior doctor pay analysis methodology - September 2022

Junior doctor pay restoration costing analysis methodology - January 2023

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Contract Article Illustration
Junior doctors excluded from DDRB 2022

The DDRB themselves state that not applying pay award would have a significant impact on retention and more.

Doctors in training in England were once again excluded from the pay award process because their contract is still subject to a multiple-year pay deal, awarding them 2% for 2022/23.

This is in spite of the Framework Agreement for the 2018 contract negotiations, which established the current pay deal, explicitly stating that the DDRB is able to make further pay recommendations or observations on behalf of junior doctors in England where requested (8.1). They once again decided that because this group was not included in the UK Government's remit letter, they are unable to make formal recommendations on their behalf, allowing the UK Government to disregard them altogether.

While the 4.5% uplift would in any case be unsatisfactory, amounting to a likely 6% pay cut in the face of spiralling inflation, to exclude junior doctors in England from the award given to other NHS workers is nothing less than a betrayal of the profession.

As the DDRB themselves note, a decision not to apply an award to groups subject to a pay deal will have 'a significant effect on motivation, affecting retention, productivity, and ultimately patient care'. They actively state that the headline increase of 2%, set as part of the current deal, is 'likely not sufficient' to address those issues.

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Junior doctors campaigning in 2022

The junior doctors committee has escalated our campaign on pay.

Since early 2022, the JDC (junior doctors committee) has escalated our campaign on pay to challenge the government to make a fair pay award for NHS junior doctors this year, that addresses the long term pay erosion our members have faced.

JDC also made the decision to withdraw from the DDRB process this year for junior doctors in England in response to concerns over the body's effectiveness and independence from Government.

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Watch our webinars

International doctors

This webinar aimed at international doctors, explains the visa constraints when taking industrial action.

Watch the Visas and industrial action webinar

BMA activists

The following two webinars for BMA members, are aimed at activists to explain how we got here and how you can help build a movement.