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Citing electronic resources

The standard for citing electronic sources have become more available as the copyright law applies equally to electronic sources. The recommendations made here are only for guidance only. You can also read the factsheet on Reference styles.

When citing electronic sources in a paper for submission is it advisable to check the intended journal’s instructions for authors.

International Standards Office. ISO 690 - 2
Information and documentation : Bibliographic references : Electronic documents or parts thereof. ISO, 1998.
Read more on ISO 690 

Li X., Crane, NB. Electronic styles: A handbook for citing electronic information Rev. ed. Information Today, 1996
Follows the two common citation conventions, those of the American Psychological Association and the Modern Languages Association, with additions to represent the unique features of electronic information.

University College, London
Information on citing and plagiarism (PDF file, 4 pages)

Bournemouth University
Useful general guide to citation systems (PDF file, 9 pages)

Detailed tutorial with many links to electronic citation
Read more on the IFLA website

ISO 690 - 2 . Information and Documentation
Library and archives of Canada provides information on how to cite electronic resources.

American Psychological Association
Useful tutorial about the basics of APA style

Open University
Offers some online guidance on how to cite electronic resources

Taken from: A guide to citing Internet sources online. Poole: University of Bournemouth, 1996:
Read the University of Bournemouth guide

It is important to maintain a consistent style. These examples use the Harvard system:

  • Individual works: author or editor, year. Title online. (Edition.) Place of publication : Publisher (if ascertainable). Available from: URL Accessed date
  • E-journals: Author, year. Title. Journal title online, volume (issue), location within host. Available from: URL Accessed date
  • Mailbase or Listserv e-mail lists: author, day month year. Subject of message. Discussion list online. Available from : list e-mail address Accessed date
  • Personal e-mails: sender (senders e-mail address), day month year. Subject of message. E-mail to recipient (recipients e-mail address)